The most important selection criterion for soil deacidification is the kind of lime, i.e., oxide or carbonate lime. Oxide lime is fast-acting, beneficial to medium to heavy soils, and positively affects soil structure. They are not recommended for light soils as they can dry them out. Carbonate lime is a universal fertiliser suitable for all soils. Their action is slower than that of oxide lime. Carbonate lime is the only form permitted for use in organic production. On magnesium-poor soils, it is advisable to add magnesium to the soil along with liming.
Price is always an essential aspect of fertiliser selection. When comparing the prices of different types of fertilisers, the price of 1 tonne of fertiliser mass should not be taken as an indication, but the percentage of CaO in the fertiliser should be taken into account, and the cost of 1 tonne of the pure component (CaO) in the individual fertilisers should be compared.
It is also worth paying attention to reactivity if specified by the manufacturer in carbonate fertilisers, as it is not an obligatory parameter. Fertilizer variability in terms of reactivity is high and ranges from 30 to 99%. Reactivity generally increases with the fineness of the lime. The higher the reactivity of the lime, the faster the deacidification process. Carbonate fertilizers with a reactivity above 50% have a similar effect to oxide lime.
Liming is a long-term treatment (4-5 years). The pace of change in soil pH resulting from liming depends on the type of lime used. After the application of oxide lime, positive effects can be expected the following year.
Lime treatment should be carried out as early as possible before sowing. The best time for liming is immediately after harvesting. Applying lime at this time allows it to be thoroughly mixed with the soil during post-harvest and pre-sowing cultivation and to stabilize the soil environment before sowing.